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  • PIA268

    This is the first aviation disaster i ever heard of, and the reason my interest in aviation was boosted so much. PIA flight 268 was a flight flying the route from Karachi International (KHI/OPKC) in Pakistan to Kathmandu Tribhuvan International (KTM/VNKT) in Nepal. On final approach, however, the flight crashed into a mountain in Bhattedanda, Nepal, killing everyone on board. It is to this day the worst accident in Nepal, the worst accident of Pakistan International, and the 6th worst A300 crash ever.
    It is to be noted that the accident happened 59 days after Thai 311 which crashed under 'similar' conditiond (CFIT into a mountain due to pilor error on approach)
    THE AIRCRAFT was a Airbus A300B4-203 built in 1976, registration AP-BCP (at the time of the crash), serial 025, operated by Pakistan International (PIA). The aircraft operated with a total of 8 airlines, counting PIA. These are Bavaria Germany, Egyptair, Hapag-loyd, Kuwait airways, Capitol Air, Air Jamaica, Condor and, of course, PIA.
    At the time of the crash, the aircraft had accumulated 39.045 hours of flying (about 1627 days in my calculations)

    THE FLIGHT was being flown by a capitan (13192 hours, 6260 in the type), a first officer (5850 hours, 1470 on the type) and two engineers (2516 and 4503 hours on the type), there were also 8 cabin crew on the flight. A total of 155 passangers were boarded, and at 11:13 local time, Pakistan268 took off.
    After contacting Nepalese ATC, they were cleared to approach from the south (sierra approach) It is of my understanding that as of 1992, Nepal did not have a modern ATC system (they did not use screens, but blocks, so they did not see the aircraft, they relied on communiction to know where the aircraft was). The aircraft started the approach, decending in 7 steps in order to reach 5800 feet in the difficult Kathmandu approach, but due to pilot error, they were using their decent chart 1 step ahead (for example, if the chart said to decend to 12000 feet, then to 10000, they were decending to 10000 instead of 12000, so they were going too low). At time of impact they were more than 1000 too low. Their last contact with Kathmandu ATC was to report 10DME at 9500 feet. It is to be noted that ATC at Nepal was known at the time for being 'timid' when reporting ground clearance.
    Shortly after, PIA268 crashed into a mountain at about 7300 feet, killing everyone on board instantly.
    Weather according to locals was calm, almost no wind or any downgrading meteorogical conditions.
    An Airbus A300B4-203 passenger plane, registered AP-BCP, was destroyed in an accident 18 km S of Kathmandu-Tribhuvan Airport (KTM), Nepal. There were 148 passengers and crew members on board. The airplane operated on a flight from Karachi International Airport (KHI) to Kathmandu-Tribhuvan Airport (KTM).

    Accident of PK 268, AP-BCP, A300 on 28 September 1992 on approach to Tribhuvan Airport Kathmandu Accident Date: 28 September 1992 Summary: Controlled flight into terrain due to pilots’ error,…

    Photos on the database
    This aircraft crashed on approach to Kathmandu Airport, Nepal, in 1992. Killing all 167 people on board which resulted in the worst aviation disaster in Nepal. The aircraft flew for various airlines under the registrations: D-AMAZ, SU-AZY, D-AHLZ.. AP-BCP. Airbus A300B4-203. is the biggest database of aviation photographs with over 5 million screened photos online!

    Leased from Hapag-Lloyd at that time (previously from Bavaria Germanair), and initially wore registration D-AMAZ. W/O 28 September 1992 with Pakistan International Airlines as AP-BCP near Kathmandu.. SU-AZY. Airbus A300B4-203. is the biggest database of aviation photographs with over 5 million screened photos online!

    D-AHLZ. Airbus A300B4-103. is the biggest database of aviation photographs with over 5 million screened photos online!

    Everything that say is in my opinion, a screener might dissagree
    If you are dissapointed of yourself, look at me and feel better.

  • #2
    Pilot error. You'll have that. Thus...

    GPWS (Ground Proximity Warning System)

    It is unfortunate that a timely GPWS warning depends so heavily on the distance between the aircraft and the ground beneath it rather than the ground ahead of it, a dependence which has obvious limitations in mountainous terrain. The system cannot be optimised for every type of terrain and the majority of international airports are surrounded by lower and less steep terrain. In these areas, the equipment has worked well and has prevented accidents. To have prevented this accident, the equipment would have had to warn the crew at least 15 and, allowing for typical pilot reaction times, probably 20 seconds before impact. At that time the aircraft was almost a mile away from the mountain it hit and over 500 feet above the ground directly beneath it
    Unfortunately, this A300 was of a pre-EGPWS vintage. EGPWS is a forward-looking enhancement of GPWS, relying on an internal nav database to provide predictive warnings. Among the terrain where this crash occurred, GPWS would provide insufficient advanced warning even if it had been working. But apparently it had long since turned to dust on this aircraft.

    Moral of the story is that pilots are going to screw up so airplanes need to be protected against that as much as is possible and practical. EGPWS, which exists on almost all modern transport category airplanes these days, closes this threat pretty well, although we have seen crashes where the crew simply ignored the terrain warnings. That's called hubris. As of today, we have yet to find a reliable protection against that particular threat.


    • #3
      I actually just watched the air disaster episode on this!!